Monday, 20 June 2011
A satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.
There are approximately 3,000 satellites operating in Earth orbit, according to the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), out of roughly 8,000 man-made objects in total. In its entire history, the SSN has tracked more than 24,500 space objects orbiting Earth. The majority of these have fallen into unstable orbits and incinerated during reentry. The SSN also keeps track which piece of space junk belongs to which country.
History's first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth; also some satellites, notably space stations, have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Artificial satellites originate from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. A few hundred satellites are currently operational, whereas thousands of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun.
Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.
Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.
Wednesday, 15 June 2011
Anonymous (used as a mass noun) is an Internet meme that originated in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan, representing the concept of many online community users simultaneously existing as an anarchic, digitized global brain. It is also generally considered to be a blanket term for members of certain Internet subcultures, a way to refer to the actions of people in an environment where their actual identities are not known.
In its early form, the concept has been adopted by a decentralized online community acting anonymously in a coordinated manner, usually toward a loosely self-agreed goal, and primarily focused on entertainment. Beginning with 2008, the Anonymous collective has become increasingly associated with collaborative, international hacktivism, undertaking protests and other actions, often with the goal of promoting internet freedom and freedom of speech. Actions credited to "Anonymous" are undertaken by unidentified individuals who apply the Anonymous label to themselves as attribution.
Although not necessarily tied to a single online entity, many websites are strongly associated with Anonymous. This includes notable imageboards such as 4chan, Futaba, their associated wikis, Encyclopædia Dramatica, and a number of forums. After a series of controversial, widely-publicized protests and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks by Anonymous in 2008, incidents linked to its cadre members have increased. In consideration of its capabilities, Anonymous has been posited by CNN to be one of the three major successors to WikiLeaks. They have attacked many groups such as scientology, SONY, Ben bernanke of the federal reserve, Master Card, Paypal, Amazon and HBGary the worlds biggest cyber technological security company, but its very hard to make out wether or not anonymous have done such attacks or wether or not its a prank or a perfectly designed takedown of rival companies or members of certain societies or the elite themselves or its a false CIA psyops designed to get everyones details through means of the echelon, google, darpa systems.
Tuesday, 14 June 2011
. The first permanent Spanish settlement was Santa Marta, founded on the Caribbean coast by Bastidas in 1525. Cartagena, which became an important port, was settled in 1533.
In 1536 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada set out from Santa Marta to explore the interior. He conquered the Chibchas on the plateau of Bogotá and named the territory the New Kingdom of Granada. Santa Fé de Bogotá, which he founded in 1538, became the administrative center for the region. In 1564 New Granada was made a presidency, a political unit in the Spanish colonial system immediately below a viceroyalty. It was then ruled from Lima, Peru, until 1717, when it became a viceroyalty with Bogotá as the capital.
New Granada was a chief source of emeralds and tobacco for Spain. Indians and Africans were enslaved to work in the mines and on the haciendas (plantations). Creoles (colonial-born Spaniards) led occasional revolts against Spanish rule. They wanted reform because of high taxes and restrictions on their political and commercial activities.
In 1810 the viceroy of New Granada was deposed, and independence was declared in Bogotá. This act was the beginning of a nine-year revolution against Spain. In 1819 General Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and the Colombian General Francisco de Paula Santander led revolutionary armies over the Andes from Venezuela. The Spanish Royalists were decisively defeated at the Battle of Boyacá, and the revolutionaries formed the Republic of Colombia with Bolívar as president.
In 1821 the country was renamed Greater Colombia, and Bogotá was made the capital. Panama and Quito (now Ecuador) joined soon after. The republic collapsed in 1830 when Venezuela and Ecuador separated from it. It was reorganized in 1831 as the Republic of New Granada, and included the territories of Colombia and Panama. In 1832 Santander became president of the republic.
In 1858 the country was reorganized as the Granadan Confederation, an association of largely autonomous states. The name was changed in 1863 to United States of Colombia. Conflict between those who wanted regional autonomy in government and those who favored a strong central state was won by the centralists. In 1886 a centralist constitution was adopted, creating the Republic of Colombia.
In 1903 Colombia refused to authorize the United States to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. With encouragement from the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia. Panama's independence was not formally reorganized by Colombia until 1921. In the 1920's serious social unrest and growing pressure from peasants and workers led to a program of gradual social reform.
In 1932 Peru seized a portion of Colombia's territory. The League of Nations settled the dispute, returning the land to Colombia. Colombia, which had been active in the Pan American movement since its beginning in 1889, was host of the Pan American Conference of 1948, which established the Organization of American States.
Meanwhile, public discontent and political instability had become critical. Riots erupted in Bogotá following the assassination of a Liberal party leader in 1948. Disorder spread quickly as each political party tried to gain control of the countryside. Police repression was increased as civil war raged in the provinces. A military coup in 1953 brought General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla to power. The following year he was elected president by a constitutional assembly.
Rojas was ousted by a military junta in 1957. In the same year, the Liberal and Conservative parties formed a pact for cooperation in restoring civil government.
Although unrest and left-wing guerrilla warfare continued during the 1960's, the new government brought some measure of political stability and economic growth. Public support for the alliance decreased. New unrest followed the election of 1970 and threatened the survival of the government. The bipartisan pact ended in 1974.
Illicit drug traffic became a growing problem in the 1980's as Colombia became the world's largest manufacturer of cocaine. In 1994 it was revealed that the president, Ernesto Samper, had solicited campaign contributions from drug dealers. Andres Pastrana, who first brought Samper's corruption to light, was elected president in 1998. Although he immediately entered into peace negotiations with the rebels, fighting continued.
ConocoPhillips Company (NYSE: COP) is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States. It is also one of the Fortune 500 companies and 22nd on Forbes Global 2000.ConocoPhillips is the fifth largest private sector energy corporation in the world and is one of the six "supermajor" vertically integrated oil companies. It sells fuel under the Conoco, Phillips 66 and Union 76 brands in North America, and Jet in Europe. ConocoPhillips was created through the merger of Conoco Inc. and the Phillips Petroleum Company on August 30, 2002
Conoco Inc. was an American oil company founded in 1875 as the Continental Oil and Transportation Company. Based in Ogden, Utah, the company was a coal, oil, kerosene, grease and candles distributor in the West. Marland Oil Company (founded by exploration pioneer E. W. Marland) later acquired the assets (subject to liabilities) of Continental Oil Company, for a consideration of 2,317,266 shares of stock. On June 26, 1929, Marland Oil changed its name to Continental Oil Company and moved its headquarters to Ponca City, Oklahoma. The acquisition gave Conoco the red bar-and-triangle logo previously used by Marland. Conoco used the logo between 1930 and 1970, when the current red capsule logo was adopted.
Numerous state corporation filings are identified "Continental Oil Company" and "Continental Oil Corp." and "Continental Oil Company of Texas" as recorded with the Texas Secretary of State and Delaware Secretary of State. Merger of San Jacinto Petroleum Corp. and Continental Oil Corporation is recorded in 1964 with Delaware Secretary of State. Actual identity of which "Continental Oil Company" or "Continental Oil Corp." is a part of ConocoPhillips is questionable and Marland Oil/Continental Oil Company may only know for certain.
The actual recording of the acquisition or merger between Conoco and Continental Oil Company is undocumented in many states where each entity had/has operations.
In 2005, ConocoPhillips began rebranding its (Union) 76 gas stations, which Phillips had acquired from Tosco Corporation before the merger with Conoco. The move prompted a petition campaign by fans hoping to save the historic 76 orange ball signage. On January 20, 2007, a Wall Street Journal article on the petition campaign included a statement from ConocoPhillips that it was changing course and would save several dozen orange and blue 76 balls to give to museums. The company also announced that it would fabricate about 100 new 76 ball signs in the ConocoPhillips color scheme of red and blue, to be placed at select 76 stations.
In March 2006, ConocoPhillips bought Wilhelmshavener Raffineriegesellschaft mbH in Germany.
In March 2006, ConocoPhillips bought Burlington Resources.
On May 10, 2006, Richard Armitage, former deputy-secretary of the U.S. State Department, was elected to the board of directors of the ConocoPhillips oil company.
In 2007 the Chevron Corporation purchased all of the Conoco gas stations in Mississippi to the Texaco brand, a process to be completed by the end of the year.
Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil" sorted by latest published revenue
March 2011: At late 2009 the company has announced to sales the assets to increase returns for investors. It is included debt reduction and stock buy back. And at this month the program is enlarged up to $10 billion assets sales in the next 2 years.
According to a presentation given at GASTECH 2011, ConocoPhillips aims to implement a floating liquefied natural gas facility by 2016-19, and has completed quantitative risk analysis of a design that will undergo pre-feed study within 2011
Sunday, 12 June 2011
The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of gold and silver. Trading is conducted amongst members of the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA), loosely overseen by the Rothschild Bank of England. Most of the members are major international banks or bullion dealers and refiners.
To this day, N.M. Rothschild & Sons of London still lists as its primary business the selling and buying of treasuries and gold bullion. N.M. Rothschild helps fix the price of gold in London each day through the LBMA. A recent London Times articles explained that the gold price fix ceremony where five men (including a Rothschild) talk on their phones for 10 minutes, then lower tiny Union Jacks sitting on their desks, thereby fixing London's gold price each day. This ceremony takes place at 10:30 a.m. and 3 p.m., like clockwork, the same way, in the same place, and with mostly the same firms participating since the first gold fixing was enacted at Rothschild in St. Swithin's Lane on Friday Sept. 12, 1919. The company's name is also associated with many gold mining companies (e.g. Trillion Resources Ltd. and other Canadian mining companies).
Internationally, gold is traded primarily via over-the-counter (OTC) transactions with limited amounts trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) and Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM). These forward contracts are known as gold futures contracts. Spot gold is traded for settlement two business days following the trade date, with a business day defined as a day when both the New York and London markets are open for business. Unlike many commodity markets, the forward market for gold is driven by spot prices and interest rate differentials, similar to foreign exchange markets, rather than underlying supply and demand dynamics. This is because gold, like currencies, is borrowed and lent by central banks and in the interbank market. Because interest rates for gold tend to be lower than US domestic interest rates--it encourages gold borrowings so that central banks can earn interest on their large gold holdings--except in special circumstances the gold market tends to be in contango, i.e. the forward price of gold is higher than the spot price. Historically this has made it an attractive market for forward sales by gold producers and contributed to an active and relatively liquid derivatives market.
Thursday, 9 June 2011
The deep web is usually defined as the content on the Web not accessible through a search on general search engines. This content is sometimes also referred to as the hidden or invisible web, but there is a lot of shady shit on there as well, I personally wouldn't ever need o go on there and run the risk of stepping into the wrong room, some say its all just full of science, but peodo's, terrorists and some very strange people dive in these waters.
The Web is a complex entity that contains information from a variety of source types and includes an evolving mix of different file types and media. It is much more than static, self-contained Web pages. In fact, the part of the Web that is not static, and is served dynamically "on the fly," is far larger than the static documents that many associate with the Web.
The concept of the deep Web is becoming more complex as search engines have found ways to integrate deep Web content into their central search function. This includes everything from airline flights to news to stock quotations to addresses to activities on Facebook accounts.
Content on the deep Web
When we refer to the deep Web, we are usually talking about the following:
The content of databases. Databases contain information stored in tables created by such programs as Access, Oracle, SQL Server, and MySQL. (There are other types of databases, but we will focus on database tables for the sake of simplicity.) Information stored in databases is accessible only by query. In other words, the database must somehow be searched and the data retrieved and then displayed on a Web page. This is distinct from static, self-contained Web pages, which can be accessed directly. A significant amount of valuable information on the Web is generated from databases.
Non-text files such as multimedia, images, software, and documents in formats such as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word. For example, see Digital Image Resources on the Deep Web for a good indication of what is out there for images.
Content available on sites protected by passwords or other restrictions. Some of this is fee-based content, such as subscription content paid for by libraries or private companies and available to their users based on various authentication schemes.
Special content not presented as Web pages, such as full text articles and books
Dynamically-changing, updated content, such as news and airline flights.This is usually the basic,"traditional" list. In these days of the social Web, let's consider adding new content to our list of deep Web sources. For example:
Discussions and other communicative activities on social networking sites, for example Facebook
Bookmarks and citations stored on social bookmarking sites
As you can see, based on these few examples, the deep Web is expanding.
Wednesday, 8 June 2011
History of the State of Alaska with some brief, but essential historical events, dates in a timeline and the people who made the State of Alaska great. You will find all of the relevant facts, data and info in a comprehensive Timeline format providing facts about the History of Alaska and how this fits in with the History of America. Historical facts, a timeline and information about the Native Americans of the State of Alaska. Discover these interesting facts about the History of Alaska including its explorers, pioneers, settlers and leaders. The Timeline format provides a chronology of important people and events important to the History of Alaska. For General Information about the State please click the following link: Fast Facts about the State of Alaska
Facts about the History of Alaska History - 1700's
1741 July 15 Aleksei Chirikov and Vitus Bering Expedition discover Alaska
1756 - 1763 - The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
1776 Captain James Cook of England searches for Northwest Passage
1775 - 1783 - The American Revolution creates the United States of America. The Revolution was due to the British burden of taxes and total power to legislate any laws governing the American colonies
July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence
July 10, 1778 - France declares war against Britain and makes an alliance with the American revolutionary forces
September 3, 1783 - The Treaty of Paris is signed by the victorious United States and the defeated Great Britain
1784 First Russian settlement established at Three Saints Bay on Kodiak Island
Facts about the History of Alaska History - The Early 1800's
1812 - 1815 - The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but
confirmed America's Independence
1823 President James Monroe, seeking to prevent European intervention, issues the Monroe Doctrine
1861 Gold is discovered in Alaska
1861 - 1865 The American Civil War. In 1859 John Brown raided Harpers Ferry and set in
motion events that led directly to the outbreak of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln, a
known opponent of slavery, was elected president and in 1861 the South Secedes. The
initial Secession of South Carolina was followed by the secession of Mississippi, Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.
These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America. The
bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War.
The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy
1865 December 6 - The Abolishment of Slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S Constitution is ratified, thus officially abolishing slavery
1867 The territory was purchased from Russia for $7,200,000 and was known as Seward's Folly (after Secretary of State William H. Seward, who negotiated the purchase) until gold was discovered
1898-1901 The Spanish American War. On December 10, 1898 the Treaty of Paris the US annexes Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines.
Facts about the History of Alaska History - 1900's
1903 Alaska-Canada border is settled
January 3, 1959Alaska was admitted to the Union - January 3, 1959
Pollution from the oil companies is massive in alaska
Origin of the name - Named after the Aleut word "Alyeska," meaning "great land."
The History of Alaska provides facts and a timeline crammed with historical facts and dates about State leaders and explorers who impacted the History of the State of Alaska. The early history and timeline of Alaska providing dates, facts and info about the history of the state. All of these events who played a vital part in the History of Alaska.
Monday, 6 June 2011
Zara is a Spanish clothing and accessories retailer based in Arteixo, Galicia, and founded in 1975 by Amancio Ortega and Rosalía Mera. It is the flagship chain store of the Inditex group; the fashion group also owns brands such as Massimo Dutti, Pull and Bear, Oysho, Uterqüe, Stradivarius and Bershka.
It is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks to develop a new product and get it to stores, compared to the six-month industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs each year. Zara has resisted the industry-wide trend towards transferring fast fashion production to low-cost countries. Perhaps its most unusual strategy was its policy of zero advertising; the company preferred to invest a percentage of revenues in opening new stores instead.
Zara was described by Louis Vuitton Fashion Director Daniel Piette as "possibly the most innovative and devastating retailer in the world." Zara has also been described as a "Spanish success story" by CNN
The founder of Zara, Amancio Ortega, opened the first Zara store in 1975 in a central street in downtown La Coruña, Galicia, Spain. It should be noted that before the store opened Amancio worked regular seller in the ordinary clothing store, which later brought to fruition, because it perfectly oriented in the fashion world and understood the tastes of its customers, which in turn gave him the opportunity to develop a correct, but importantly, an effective strategy for the company Zara. Its first store featured low-priced lookalike products of popular, higher-end clothing fashions. The store proved to be a success, and Ortega began opening more Zara stores throughout Spain. During the 1980s, Ortega started changing the design, manufacturing and distribution process to reduce lead times and react to new trends in a quicker way, in what he called "instant fashions". The company based its improvements in the use of information technologies and using groups of designers instead of individuals.
In 1980, the company started its international expansion through Porto, Portugal. In 1989 it entered the United States and in 1990 France.
This international expansion was increased in the 1990s, with Mexico (1992), Greece (1993), Belgium and Sweden (1994), etc. until the current presence in over 73 countries.
Zara stores are company-owned, except where local legislation forbids foreigner-owned businesses. In those cases, Zara franchises the stores.
Zara is a vertically integrated retailer. Unlike similar apparel retailers, Zara controls most of the steps on the supply-chain: It designs, produces, and distributes itself. Zara set up its own factory in La Coruña (a city known for its textile industry) in 1980, and upgraded to reverse milk-run-type production and distribution facilities in 1990. This approach, designed by Toyota Motor Corp., was called the just-in-time (JIT) system. It enabled the company to establish a business model that allows self-containment throughout the stages of materials, manufacture, product completion and distribution to stores worldwide within just a few days.
Regarding the design strategy, an article in Businessworld magazine describes it as follows: "Zara was a fashion imitator. It focused its attention on understanding the fashion items that its customers wanted and then delivering them, rather than on promoting predicted season's trends via fashion shows and similar channels of influence, which the fashion industry traditionally used.
Zara on Briggate in Leeds, UK
50% of the products Zara sells are manufactured in Spain, 26% in the rest of Europe, and 24% in Asian and African countries and the rest of the world. So while some competitors outsource all production to Asia, Zara makes its most fashionable items—half of all its merchandise—at a dozen company-owned factories in Spain and Portugal, particularly in Galicia and northern Portugal where labour is somewhat cheaper than in most of Western Europe. Clothes with a longer shelf life, such as basic T-shirts, are outsourced to low-cost suppliers, mainly in Asia and Turkey.
Zara can offer considerably more products than similar companies. It produces about 11,000 distinct items annually compared with 2,000 to 4,000 items for its key competitors. The company can design a new product and have finished goods in its stores in four to five weeks; it can modify existing items in as little as two weeks. Shortening the product life cycle means greater success in meeting consumer preferences. If a design doesn't sell well within a week, it is withdrawn from shops, further orders are canceled and a new design is pursued. Zara has a range of basic designs that are carried over from year to year, but some fashion forward designs can stay on the shelves less than four weeks, which encourages Zara fans to make repeat visits. An average high-street store in Spain expects customers to visit three times a year. That goes up to 17 times for Zara.
On September 6, 2010, Financial Times reported that Inditex has launched the first online boutique for its best-selling brand Zara. The long-awaited website will begin in Spain, the UK, Portugal, Italy, Germany and France – six countries that are among the most important of the company's 76 markets. When asked about the company's late arrival to internet retailing, Pablo Isla, chief executive, said they have been waiting for online demand to build before launching into cyberspace. All items on sale at its Zara outlets would be available online and at the same prices. Customers can choose from the usual range of paying methods and opt either for a free store pick-up or paid-for postal delivery. The online return and exchange policy is identical to the store system, with shoppers given 30 days to change their minds. Queries will be handled by customer service operators or via e-mail or chat messaging. Inditex said that iPhone and iPad applications that allowed purchasing would soon be available.
On November 4, 2010, Zara Online extended the service to five more countries: Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Online stores will begin operating in the US, South Korea, and Canada in 2011. The simple website allows shoppers to filter a search for garments by; type of garment, colours, sizes, prices, reference number, etc. Customers can view products in precise detail from different angles and use a SuperZoom feature to get an exceptional close-up look at the details of each item. In 2011, Zara entered the Australian market with a three storey,1830sqm store in the Westfield Sydney complex opened on April 21st 2011 and a second at Bourke Street Mall Melbourne which opened on 15 June 2011
General Atomics is a nuclear physics and defense contractor headquartered in San Diego, California. General Atomics’ research into fission and fusion matured into competencies in related technologies, allowing the company to expand into other fields of research. General Atomics develops systems ranging from the nuclear fuel cycle to remotely operated surveillance aircraft, airborne sensors, and advanced electric, electronic, wireless and laser technologies.
General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affiliate of General Atomics, provides unmanned aerial vehicles and radar solutions for military and commercial applications worldwide. The company’s Aircraft Systems Group is a designer and manufacturer of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), including the Predator, Predator B, Sky Warrior and Predator C. The Reconnaissance Systems Group designs, manufactures, and integrates the Lynx Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)/GMTI radar into both manned and unmanned aircraft, as well as the CLAW sensor control and image analysis software, and integrates sensor and communications equipment into manned ISR aircraft.
The TRIGA nuclear reactor was one of the first General Atomics projects
General Atomics (GA) was founded July 18, 1955 in San Diego, California as the General Atomic division of General Dynamics "for the purpose of harnessing the power of nuclear technologies for the benefit of mankind".
GA's very first offices were in the General Dynamics facility on Hancock Street in San Diego. GA also used a schoolhouse on San Diego's Barnard Street as its temporary headquarters, which it would later "adopt" as part of its Education Outreach program. San Diego voters approved the transfer of land to GA for permanent facilities in Torrey Pines and the John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science was formally dedicated there on June 25, 1959. The Torrey Pines facility continues to serve as the company's headquarters today.
The initial projects were the TRIGA nuclear reactor and Project Orion.
1967: sold to Gulf Oil and renamed Gulf General Atomic.
1973: GA was again renamed as General Atomic Company when Royal Dutch Shell Group's Scallop Nuclear Inc. became a 50-50 partner in the company.
1982: Gulf bought out its partner and renamed the company GA Technologies Inc.
1984: Chevron took ownership of GA following its merger with Gulf Oil.
1986: GA was sold to a company owned by Neal Blue and Linden Blue when it assumed its current name.
1987: former U.S. Navy Rear Admiral, Thomas J. Cassidy Jr. joined General Atomics.
1993: GA was awarded the "Information Services" portion of the NSF contract for InterNIC functions  and publishes Internet Scout Report.
1993: General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) was created, with Cassidy as President.
1994: GA-ASI spun off as a General Atomics affiliated company.
1995: GA's role as provider of InterNIC Information Services ends.
Sunday, 5 June 2011
The Holocaust also known as The Shoah was supposedly the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds perished. Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the Nazis' genocide of millions of people in other groups, including Romani (more commonly known in English by the exonym "Gypsies"), Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, homosexuals, people with disabilities, Jehovah's Witnesses and other political and religious opponents, which occurred regardless of whether they were of German or non-German ethnic origin. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is supposedly between 11 million and 17 million people. The fact of the matter is, there was only around 8 million jews in Europe at the time, all of the concentration camps couldn't back then and still couldn't now support and facilitate the extermination of 9 million people. The dangers from that amount of highly flammable materials with NO evidence of safety equipment, logs, designated area's for which they were stored and so many other flaws in the holocaust lie. The argument is that the persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Various legislation to remove the Jews from civil society, predominantly the Nuremberg Laws, was enacted in Nazi Germany years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labor until they died of exhaustion or disease. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings. The Third Reich required Jews and Romani to be confined in overcrowded ghettos before being transported by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were systematically killed in gas chambers. In all fairness it was well over 2 million Polish people who were executed not coz they were jewish but Polish, over 1 million gypsies were executed, over 1 million people died of starvation, 1 million due to war, and about half a million Jews, not 8 or 9 million which we are taught at school.
Every arm of Nazi Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics that led to the genocides, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal state". Opinions differ on how much the civilian population of Germany knew about the government conspiracy against the Jewish population. Most historians claim that the civilian population was not aware of the atrocities that were carried out, especially in the extermination camps, which were located outside of Germany in Nazi-occupied Europe.
The real reason for the holocaust
The jesuit and Sovereign military order of malta controllers of the British empire, the US, nazi's, Chinese, needed a war to shift the worlds power over to them by creating a false war, false enemy, the nazi's and communists, Japanese, the arms industry at this time was boombing big time, a false flag was create by bombing the German reichstag and blaming it on the Polish which triggered the war and eventually the holocaust, the British and US saved all the rich Jews from Europe and promised them Israel which they then violently snatched it from the US and UK and violently removed them from Israel and the rest is history. It has created patriotism, divide and conquer techniques, The UN was formed and many other corrupted systems of debt enslavement. It created the socialist/communistsic fallacy
Citigroup Inc. (branded Citi) is an American multinational financial services company based in New York City. Citigroup was formed from one of the world's largest mergers in history by combining the banking giant Citicorp and financial conglomerate Travelers Group on April 7, 1998.
Citigroup Inc. has the world's largest financial services network, spanning 140 countries with approximately 16,000 offices worldwide. The company employs approximately 260,000 staff around the world, and holds over 200 million customer accounts in more than 140 countries. It is a primary dealer in US Treasury securities.
Citigroup suffered huge losses during the global financial crisis of 2008 and was rescued in November 2008 in a massive stimulus package by the U.S. government. Its largest shareholders include funds from the Middle East and Singapore. On February 27, 2009, Citigroup announced that the United States government would take a 36% equity stake in the company by converting $25 billion in emergency aid into common shares; the stake was reduced to 27% after Citigroup sold $21 billion of common shares and equity in the largest single share sale in US history, surpassing Bank of America's $19 billion share sale one month prior.
Citigroup is one of the Big Four banks in the United States, along with Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase and Wells Fargo
Citigroup was formed on October 9, 1998, following the $140 billion merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group to create the world's largest financial services organization. The history of the company is, thus, divided into the workings of several firms that over time amalgamated into Citicorp, a multinational banking corporation operating in more than 100 countries; or Travelers Group, whose businesses covered credit services, consumer finance, brokerage, and insurance. As such, the company history dates back to the founding of: the City Bank of New York (later Citibank) in 1812; Bank Handlowy in 1870; Smith Barney in 1873, Banamex in 1884; Salomon Brothers in 1910
Friday, 3 June 2011
KBR, Inc. (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) NYSE: KBR is an American engineering, construction and private military contracting company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton, headquartered in Houston. The company also has large offices in Arlington, Birmingham and Leatherhead, UK. After Halliburton acquired Dresser Industries in 1998, Dresser's engineering subsidiary, The M. W. Kellogg Co., was merged with Halliburton's construction subsidiary, Brown & Root, to form Kellogg Brown & Root. KBR and its predecessors have won many contracts with the U.S. military, including during World War II, Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
KBR is the largest non-union construction company in the United States. The company's corporate offices are in the KBR Tower in Downtown Houston
KBR Tower, the headquarters of KBR and a part of Cullen Center, with the Downtown Houston YMCA ahead
500 Jefferson, also a part of Cullen Center, has additional KBR offices
KBR offices on Clinton Drive, within the boundaries of the East End and the Fifth Ward. It is the former headquarters of Brown & Root. As of December 2010 KBR no longer operates this office
In 1901, Morris Kellogg founded The M. W. Kellogg Company in New York City. The company was incorporated in 1905 and its headquarters was moved to Jersey City, New Jersey. Initially Kellogg’s main business was power plant construction and fabrication of power plant components, but the development of hammer forge welding techniques helped ready the company to move into refining as the petroleum industry developed. Kellogg was announced the number one construction company for years 1993 to 1995. This is mainly due to their work in the Dulles Greenway.
Kellogg’s entry into process engineering initially focused on the Fleming cracking process, but in the 1920s Kellogg partnered with The Texas Company (Texaco) and Standard Oil of Indiana to purchase the Cross thermal cracking process. Kellogg set up one of the first petroleum laboratories in the country in 1926 to commercialize and then license the technology. This led to Kellogg building some 130 units in the U.S. and abroad.
In the 1930s and '40s Kellogg worked with leading refiners on various technologies. For the war effort, these developments led to the construction of six hydroreformer units twenty fluid catalytic cracking units and the only complete refinery built during World War II. Even bigger than the refining work was K-25, the gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee built as part of the Manhattan Project. This period also included the development of the Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation of state which has since become an industry mainstay and provided the basis for Kellogg’s lead in cryogenics.
The 1950s Kellogg technology expanded into steam pyrolysis, Orthoflow fluid catalytic cracking, phenol-from-cumene and coal-to-synthetic fuels technologies and the '60s saw the growth in helium recovery, ethylene and the development of Kellogg’s ammonia process.
In 1970 Kellogg moved from New York City to Houston, Texas and in 1975, they completed the move by relocating the research and development lab as well. The '70s saw Kellogg become the first American contractor to receive contracts from the People’s Republic of China. Kellogg’s international work expanded with the major ammonia complexes in China, Indonesia and Mexico as well as LNG liquefaction plant in Algeria and 2 receiving terminals in the U.S., the world’s largest LPG plant in Kuwait and four fluid catalytic cracking units in Mexico. The '80s saw continuation of global activity in LNG and ethylene with millisecond furnaces starting up in the U.S.
Brown & Root
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Brown & Root was founded in Texas in 1919 by two brothers, George R. Brown and Herman Brown, with money provided by their brother-in-law, Daniel Root. The company began its operations by building roads in Texas.
One of its first large-scale projects, according to the book Cadillac Desert, was building a dam on the Texas Colorado River near Austin during the Depression years. For assistance in federal payments, the company turned to the local Congressman, Lyndon B. Johnson. Brown & Root was the principal source of campaign funds after Johnson's initial run for Congress in 1937, in return for persuading the Bureau of Reclamation to change its rules against paying for a dam on land the federal government did not own, a decision that had to go all the way to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, according to Robert A. Caro's book The Path to Power. After other very profitable construction projects for the federal government, Brown & Root gave massive sums of cash for Johnson's first run for the U.S. Senate in 1941. Brown and Root reportedly violated IRS rules over campaign contributions, largely in charging off its donations as deductible company expenses, according to Caro. A subsequent IRS investigation threatened to bring criminal charges of illegal campaign donations against Brown & Root, as well as Johnson and others. Roosevelt himself told the IRS to back off and allowed Brown and Root to settle for pennies on the dollar.
During World War II, Brown & Root built the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi and its subsidiary Brown Shipbuilding produced a series of warships for the U.S. Government.
In 1947, Brown & Root built one of the world's first offshore oil platforms.
According to Tracy Kidder's Pulitzer Prize-winning book Mountains Beyond Mountains, Brown & Root was a contractor in the Péligre Dam project. The project was designed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and financed by the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
Following the death of Herman Brown, Halliburton Energy Services acquired Brown & Root in December 1962. According to Dan Briody, who wrote a book on the subject, the company became part of a consortium of four companies that built about 85 percent of the infrastructure needed by the Navy during the Vietnam War. At the height of the anti-war movement of the 1960s, Brown & Root was derided as "Burn & Loot" by protesters.
In 1989, Halliburton acquired another major engineering and construction contractor, C. F. Braun & Co., of Alhambra California, and merged it into Brown & Root.
From 1995-2002, Halliburton KBR was awarded at least $2.5 billion to construct and run military bases, some in secret locations, as part of the Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP).
The extent of their services included a vast array of logistical operations historically under the jurisdiction of the military. Such operations included laundry services, meal services (dining halls), entertainment (Internet and cable access), and recreation (basketball courts and gym equipment).
In September 2005, under a competitive bid contract it won in July 2005 to provide debris removal and other emergency work associated with natural disasters, KBR started assessment of the cleanup and reconstruction of Gulf Coast Marine and Navy facilities damaged in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The facilities include: Naval Station Pascagoula, Naval Station Gulfport, the John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, two smaller U.S. Navy facilities in New Orleans, Louisiana and others in the Gulf Coast region. KBR has had similar contracts for more than 15 years.
Formation of KBR, Inc.
Halliburton announced on April 5, 2007, that it had finally broken ties with KBR, which has been its contracting, engineering and construction unit as a part of the company for 44 years. The move was prefaced by a statement registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on April 15, 2006, stating that Halliburton planned to sell up to 20 percent of its KBR stock on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). On November 16, 2006, KBR shares were offered for the public in an Initial Public Offering with shares priced at $17. The shares closed up more than 22 percent to $20.75 a share on the first trading day.
On May 7, 2008, the company announced that it would acquire Birmingham, Alabama-based engineering and construction firm BE&K for $550 million. BE&K plans to remain headquartered in Birmingham.
Called Helvetia in ancient times, Switzerland in 1291 was a league of cantons in the Holy Roman Empire, during the nazi reign and ever snce it has become the riches country in the world due to the fact that a lot of criminals, wealthy businessmen, corporation share holders, war lords place their money in secure banks, the Bank of international settlements and all of the worlds top banks have an office there. Fashioned around the nucleus of three German forest districts of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, the Swiss Confederation slowly added new cantons. In 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia gave Switzerland its independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
French revolutionary troops occupied the country in 1798 and named it the Helvetic Republic, but Napoléon in 1803 restored its federal government. By 1815, the French- and Italian-speaking peoples of Switzerland had been granted political equality.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the neutrality and recognized the independence of Switzerland. In the revolutionary period of 1847, the Catholic cantons seceded and organized a separate union called the Sonderbund , but they were defeated and rejoined the federation.
New Constitution Establishes a Unified, Neutral State
In 1848, the new Swiss constitution established a union modeled on that of the U.S. The federal constitution of 1874 established a strong central government while giving large powers of control to each canton. National unity and political conservatism grew as the country prospered from its neutrality. Its banking system became the world's leading repository for international accounts.
Strict neutrality was its policy in both world wars. Geneva was the seat of the League of Nations (later the European headquarters of the United Nations) and of a number of international organizations.
Allegations in the 1990s concerning secret assets of Jewish Holocaust victims deposited in Swiss banks led to international criticism and the establishment of a fund to reimburse the victims and their families. Surprisingly, women were not given the right to vote or to hold office until 1971. Switzerland's first woman president—as well as the first Jew to assume the position—was Ruth Dreifuss in 1999. In Sept. 2000, the Swiss voted against a plan to cut the number of foreigners in the country to 18% of the population (in 2000 foreigners made up 19.3%). Since 1970, four similar anti-immigration plans have failed.
Switzerland Joins the UN and Moves to the Right Politically
On Sept 10, 2002, the Swiss abandoned their long-held neutrality to become the 190th member of the UN.
In Oct. 2003, Switzerland took a turn to the right when the far-right Swiss People's Party (SVP) had the strongest showing in parliamentary elections, garnering 28% of the vote. Its virulently anti-immigration, anti-EU leader, Christopher Blocher, was given a cabinet position. The SVP fared well again in October 2007 elections, winning 29% of the vote and gaining seven seats in Parliament. The party took the most votes in general election history. Immigration dominated the election, and the SVP was accused of running a racist campaign. In December, the coalition that has run Switzerland since 1959 fell apart when the SVP withdrew from the government to protest Parliament's ouster of Blocher as justice minister. The move shifted the government to the center-left.
On June 1, 2008, 64% of voters opposed a law initiated by the SVP that would allow secret votes by the public to grant citizenship to foreigners in their towns. However, 57.5% of voters passed a referendum in November 2009 banning the construction of new minarets on mosques. The SVP sponsored the referendum, saying minarets are a symbol of Islamization. Several Western countries and Muslims around the world criticized the vote as discriminatory and intolerant.
Switzerland, in central Europe, is the land of the Alps. Its tallest peak is the Dufourspitze at 15,203 ft (4,634 m) on the Swiss side of the Italian border, one of 10 summits of the Monte Rosa massif. The tallest peak in all of the Alps, Mont Blanc (15,771 ft; 4,807 m), is actually in France. Most of Switzerland is composed of a mountainous plateau bordered by the great bulk of the Alps on the south and by the Jura Mountains on the northwest. The country's largest lakes—Geneva, Constance (Bodensee), and Maggiore—straddle the French, German-Austrian, and Italian borders, respectively. The Rhine, navigable from Basel to the North Sea, is the principal inland waterway.
Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. This woman may be the child's genetic mother (called traditional surrogacy), or she may carry the pregnancy to delivery after having an embryo, to which she has no genetic relationship, transferred to her uterus (called gestational surrogacy). If the pregnant woman received compensation for carrying and delivering the child (besides medical and other reasonable expenses) the arrangement is called a commercial surrogacy, otherwise the arrangement is sometimes referred to as an altruistic surrogacy.
In a traditional surrogacy the child may be conceived via home artificial insemination using fresh or frozen sperm or impregnated via IUI (intrauterine insemination), or ICI (intracervical insemination) performed at a health clinic.
The social parents (that is, those that intend to raise the child) may arrange a surrogate pregnancy because of female infertility, or other medical issues which may make the pregnancy or delivery impossible, risky or otherwise undesirable. The social mother could also be fertile and healthy, and prefer the convenience of someone else undergoing pregnancy, labor, and delivery for her. The intended parent could also be a single man or woman wishing to have his/her own biological child. Some same-sex couples turn to surrogacy as an option to becoming parents. This area is also a massive multi billion pound industry, some mothers are slaves and get next to nothing in return for their child.
The advances in human reproductive sciences have made it possible for couples and others to have biologically their own children who otherwise cannot for a number of reasons. This has given rise to the concept of surrogate mothers. Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction. More common form is IVF/Gestational surrogacy in which the surrogate child biologically belongs completely to the social parents. The other type is gestational surrogacy where the surrogate child is genetically related to the male parent and the surrogate mother.
India where it is the only place where it is legal has emerged as a favourable destination for surrogacy and its Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) industry has evolved into a 25-billion rupee business annually, with Law Commission describing it as “a gold pot”. The phenomenal rise in surrogacy in India has been due to it being cheap, socially accepted. Moreover, surrogacy has emerged as a preferred option because of complicated adoption procedures.
The War on Drugs is (soon to be was) a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention being undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, intended to both define and reduce the illegal drug trade. This initiative includes a set of drug policies of the United States that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of illegal psychoactive drugs. The term "War on Drugs" was first used by President Richard Nixon on June 17, 1971. Countries globally but mainly focussing on Columbia, Mexico, Afghanistan, Puerto rico, central and northern america, but since the war on drugs campaign started illegal drugs production has seen an increase by up to 25% in just the last 10 years.
Newspaper reports - The war on drugs has failed
On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske, the current Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, signaled that although it did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, the Obama administration would not use the term "War on Drugs," as he claims it is "counter-productive". One of the alternatives that Mr Kerlikowske has showcased is Sweden's Drug Control Policies that combine balanced public health approach and opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for cocaine use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of European neighbors such as the United Kingdom and Spain.
In June 2011 the United Nation's Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the US government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed.
Wednesday, 1 June 2011
Real estate or immovable property is a legal term (in some jurisdictions) that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. Real estate (immovable property) is often considered synonymous with real property, in contrast from personal property (also sometimes called chattel or personalty). However, for technical purposes, some people prefer to distinguish real estate, referring to the land and fixtures themselves, from real property, referring to ownership rights over real estate. The terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property.
In law, the word real means relating to a thing (from Latin reālis, ultimately from rēs, 'matter' or 'thing'), as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly distinguishes between real property (land and anything affixed to it) and personal property (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The conceptual difference is between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, and movable property, which a person would retain title to. (Incidentally, the word real in real estate is not derived from the notion of land having historically been "royal" property. The word royal—and its Spanish cognate, real—come from the unrelated Latin word rēgālis 'kingly,' which is a derivative of rēx, meaning 'king.')
With the development of private property ownership, real estate has become a major area of business.
Personal property is a type of property. In the common law systems personal property may also be called chattels. It is distinguished from real property, or real estate. In the civil law systems personal property is often called movable property or movables - any property that can be moved from one location or another. This term is used to distinguish property that different from immovable property or immovables, such as land and buildings.
Personal property may be.
In law, possession is the control a person intentionally exercises toward a thing. In all cases, to possess something, a person must have an intention to possess it. A person may be in possession of some property (although possession does not always imply ownership). Like ownership, the possession of things is commonly regulated by states under property law.
Just an idea of what should be happening globally
About 10,000 years ago, migrating Indians settled in fertile valleys and along the coast of what is now Chile. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the area's remoteness prevented extensive settlement.
In 1541, the Spanish, under Pedro de Valdivia, encountered hundreds of thousands of Indians from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand -- heir to the deposed king -- was formed on September 18, 1810. Spanish attempts to reimpose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle under Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's most renowned patriot. Chilean independence was formally proclaimed on February 12, 1818.
The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, family politics, and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The system of presidential power eventually predominated, but wealthy landowners continued to control Chile.
Toward the end of the 19th century, government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by persistently suppressing the Mapuche Indians. In 1881, it signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879-83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.
Chile established a parliamentary-style democracy in the late 19th century, which tended to protect the interests of the ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. Continuing political and economic instability resulted in the quasi-dictatorial rule of General Carlos Ibanez (1924-32).
When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support developed. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932-52), the state increased its role in the economy.
The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei-Montalva (father of the current president) by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty," the Frei Administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive.
In 1970, Dr. Salvador Allende, a Marxist and member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP) coalition of Socialists, Communists, Radicals, and dissident Christian Democrats, was elected by a narrow margin. His program included the nationalization of most remaining private industries and banks, massive land expropriation, and collectivization. Allende's proposal also included the nationalization of U.S. interests in Chile's major copper mines. Elected with only 36% of the vote and by a plurality of only 36,000 votes, Allende never enjoyed majority support in the Chilean Congress or broad popular support. Domestic production declined, severe shortages of consumer goods, food, and manufactured products were widespread and inflation reached 1,000% per annum. Mass demonstrations, recurring strikes, violence by both government supporters and opponents, and widespread rural unrest ensued in response to the general deterioration of the economy. By 1973, Chilean society had split into two hostile camps. A military coup overthrew Allende on September 11, 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace, Allende reportedly committed suicide.